GEM Hydro-Kinetic Turbine Rivers and Oceans


GEM Hydro-Kinetic Turbine (Patent's in Canada, USA, China and patent's pending in India and Brazil) sites are appraised for dimension and generation capability, and is tailored to each site. The Hydro-Kinetic Turbine will be engineered and design according to site requirements for both on grid and off grid connected locations, this includes flow velocity, flow volumes and other environmental and water transportation requirements.

The GEM Hydro-Kinetic Turbine will be constructed out of the most environmentally sensitive CSA approved durable products available today. The GEM Turbine is designed and constructed for low maintenance and maximum longevity. The GEM Hydro Kinetic Turbine can be located near the consuming markets, due to its low environmental impact with regard to noise pollution, wild life concerns and zero head (no reservoir required). The GEM Turbine is the most efficient and durable hydro-kinetic energy turbine available today as it is constructed of substantial heavy gauge metal with a limited number of moving parts that are designed of durable, non polluting components. Our turbine drive will require low to zero maintenance for extended periods of time. The GEM Turbine maintains designed rotation regardless of flow direction unique to the industry. The Generators are located above the water for ease of access, maintenance and longevity.
The GEM turbine can be operated in high speed tidal currents such as the Bay of Fundy, Canada (flows in excess of 7 m/sec) due to it's durable non-traditional design or in 0.5m/sec+ water velocity. This unit has the ability to deflect high energy impact while maintaining the highest efficiency, of any turbine due to its non-traditional patented design. A Malaysian Technology Institute achieved 89% efficiency in a controlled flow channel test based on the GEM concept. This efficiency was conducted on a working model therefore it takes into consideration bearing efficiency loss. This efficiency would include bearing loss and any fluctuations in flow. Other turbine efficiencies are determined by theoretical efficiencies and do not include bearing loss and other inefficiencies. This efficiency validates the GEM results.     
GEM has developed the technology to improve this 89% efficiency while maintaining turbine integrity for durability and efficiency. The efficiency is in excess of 89% or approximately 1.5 times the "Betz Limit Theory" ( of 59.33% (maximum for a traditional turbine, considered to be 100% when calculating efficiencies on traditional turbine designs such as wind turbines). Our efficiencies have been derived in field tests and confirmed by computer simulation (Autodesk Software). The Malaysian studies confirmed our field tests. During testing and data collection at the Canadian Turbine Test Centre the GEM Team acquired a horsepower to torque performance ratio on its concept test unit.


            The GEM Turbine

At GEM Holdings we realize that Solar is a green renewable industry and Windmills are also a green renewable industry and with the GEM Turbines tidal and run of the river technology it will now become a viable GREEN industry, all capable of similar power production. 

The GEM Turbine can produce power surpassing the largest of windmills and solar farms when considering efficiencies and the power output.  The GEM Turbine will have an overall capital cost advantage, an operation and maintenance advantage; while maintaining a superior zero to low wildlife and environmental impact.

GEM Holdings over the past 5 years has identified obvious areas in the design that would require innovative solutions, these are: -

  1. The massive weight in a large unit central drum.
  2. The massive weight in a large vane.
  3. The adjustment to river and tidal water surface fluctuation or flow elevations.
  4. The extreme torque on vanes and their hinge or bearing load axles. (Concern of the Malaysia Study)
  5. The roller support system to reduce axil stress with manufacturing in-consistences.
  6. The rotation variance between high and low tide and maintaining a constant rpm as in windmills (variable pitch blades).
  7. Debris accommodation and avoidance.
  8. Site design to accommodate ice flow in the north.
  9. The operation of green environmentally friendly non-corrosive bearings. (Concern of the Malaysia Study)
  10. It is noted that a small diameter turbine has high RPM but low torque, as the diameter increases the RPM decreases and the torque increases in a constant energy flow (water or air) This factor has an influence on the construction of all kinetic turbines (traditional water turbines and wind turbines) The durable GEM turbine with its floatation qualities and its patent pending technologies will have a diminished impact from this factor as the GEM turbine operates as a low RPM, high torque, highly efficient turbine design.  

GEM Holdings has innovation to address all of these concerns.  The most difficult concerns were #4(extreme vane torques) and #6(variable speed ability) and #7(debris accommodation and avoidance).  These concerns were addressed with solutions that increase efficiency while keeping the environment paramount.

We are happy to announce GEM Holdings has addressed and recently provided solutions to all of these concerns with its innovative patent pending technologies. GEM Holdings Ltd. believes that this turbine is the only hydro-kinetic turbine capable of producing substantial power at a low cost from a single unit but operate well in a farm environment.  

The unique design of the GEM Turbine considers the flow onto the exposed vane to be the high resistance side of the Turbine and the retracted vane to be the low resistance side of the Turbine.  In a 6 vane design (optimum) the width of the vane is equal to the radius of the drum.  The water striking the extended vane provides a force on the vane and also sustains an equal amount of force from the water striking the drum then deflects the water onto the designed vane in the amount of the radius of the drum.  These forces in conjunction with the high and low pressures creates the force on the axis.

This designed focus of water when considering the forces as well as the pressure difference can be assumed to double the vane force of the normal flow with the drum deflected flow.  The vane can now be considered uniform when calculating vane force. If the water striking the vane without the water deflected off of the drum is considered, the point load would be 25% of the distance from the drum on the vane, but with the water deflected off of the drum the point load will move from 25% of the vane width to 50% of the vane width from the drum, this occurs because water is non compressive. The low resistance side of the Turbine will lose efficiency in the assisted opening of the opposite vane that is operating co-operatively in the opening and closing process.  This procedure will result in a (100% - 90%) or 10% loss of efficiency.  All forces included will result in the following calculations to determine Turbine production.  (These calculations have been confirmed by prototype testing.) 




When evaluating and critiquing the non-traditional GEM Turbine one must take the Horsepower relative to distance and time into consideration in order to calculate the performance of this technology. The higher learning center in Malaysia in conjunction with its advanced testing facility realized this aspect in calculating the performance of this unique innovation; arriving at an 89% efficiency. It is very important not to overlook this aspect during performance critiquing. 


GEM Turbine Power Output Calculations

GEM Prototype Test Example


Figure 1 Point Load Circumference (PLC) passes through the centre of the vane or 50% of the vane width from the drum.

Figure 2 Point Load Circumference (PLC) passes through the vane at 25% of the vane width from the drum.  The PLC travels an equal distance from the axis.  

Conclusion: The Point Load Circumference will be of equal distance in Figure 1 and Figure 2, but when calculating the vane force Figure 1 must be used for the correct calculation of force and torque.  


            1:         GEM Turbine efficiency (E) = 90% or 0.90

            2:         1 (hp) = 550 ft. lbs./sec.

            3:         Water Weight (WW) = 62.5 lbs./cu. ft.

            4:         Water Velocity (WV) = _2.5____ft./sec. or _150___ft./min.

            5:         Vane Width (VW) = __1.5___ft.

            6:         Vane Height (VH) = __4.0__ft.

            7:         Point Load Circumference = PLC

             8:        Deflector = __0.33_____ft.

             9:        Radius = R

           10:        Point Load Circumference (PLC) = 3.14( 05. VW__0.75_ft +0.5 Deflector  __0.165___ ft. + Drum Diameter ___3___ft.)  = _12.2931___ ft.

           11:        Unit RPM = WV per min. ___150___ft./min. ÷ unit PLC_12.2931__ft. x E or 0.90 = __11____rpm (Validated by test)

           12:        Force (F) = (WV _2.5___ ft./sec. x WW __62.5__ lbs./cu. ft.) VW _1.5___ ft. x vane height __4___ft. = __937.5___lbs./sec.

           13:        Torque (T) = F __937.5__lbs./sec. (  0.5   VW or_0.75___ ft. + deflector __0.33__ft. + R __1.5___ ft.) = _2418.75_____ ft. lbs./sec.

           14:        hp distance = (PLC x rpm) ÷ 60 sec/min. = _2.254____ ft./sec.

           15:        Unit HP = (T ÷ 550 ft. lbs./sec.) hp distance = __9.9____HP at __11___rpm

           16:       Production in kw= 0.74 kw/ hp x hp =____7.4_____Kw. at ___11____rpm


The GEM research contains approximately the same results as the Malaysian University research in a controlled flow channel. GEM Holdings accepts the Malaysian study as accurate.




Solar Energy:

Assuming a solar panel site is installed at $900,000 per Megawatt., and it operates at 10 to 15% efficiency.  Using the highest efficiency of 15%, an installed Megawatt of electrical output would be $6,000,000., per Megawatt of production.  The installation price is a low estimate and the output efficiency is a high estimate. New solar farms near the equator can operate at a 22% efficiency, but a decrease in efficiency occurs as installations move away from the equator.  Solar panels use approximately 4 acres of valuable land per installed megawatt when located close to market.


The life expectancy appears to be 20 to 25 years, with an 80% production near the end of the life expectancy.  The efficiency when taken over one year could be less than the 15% efficiency, this would increase the installation cost, with a maintenance cost of 1% to 3% of the installation cost per year depending on location and age.  Therefore the capitalization and maintenance of the installation will be between 5% and 8% of the installation costs per annum, or $300,000., to $480,000., per year.  Concentrators of solar rays to increase efficiency are known to kill or injure wildlife such as birds and insects, and are under scrutiny and subject to restrictions in California.

Three solar farms are approved for installation in southern Alberta, Canada totalling 94 megawatts, costing over 100 million dollars. This will supply power for 20,000 Alberta homes using 7200 kilowatts per year (Alberta Average) (20,000 homes x 7200 kilowatt hours/year) = 144000 megawatt hours per year or (144000 megawatts per year/365days/24hrs)= 16.4 megawatts per hour average. The efficiency will be (100%/94 mega watts x16.4 megawatts) or 17.45% efficiency. The average power production for Alberta is 1292 kilowatt hours/ year on a 1 kilowatt solar panel  therefore one kilowatt solar panel at (1292 kilowatt hours per year/365days per year/24 hours per day)= 0.1475 or 14.75% average efficiency.  The 2019 southern Alberta installation operates at 17.45% efficiency as compared to the Alberta average of 14.75% because it is located further south in the province. The cost of one megawatt of solar installation will be $100,000,000.00/16.4 Megawatts = $6,097,560.97 per Megawatt or approximately $6,000,000.00 per megawatt.

Decommissioning costs of solar is $200,000.00 per Megawatt of installation.  At a 15% efficiency or ($200,000.00/15%)100= $1,300,000 per Megawatt of production. (Heavy Metals costly to dispose of)

Windmill Energy:

Assuming a windmill is installed at $2,000,000., and it operates at 34% to 37% efficiency.  Using the highest efficiency of 37%, an installed Megawatt of electrical output would be approximately $5,400,000., per Megawatt of production.  The installation price is a low estimated installed price, and the output efficiency is a high estimate.   The operating and maintenance costs are extremely high. The maintenance costs fluctuate by age, location and year therefore view government operations and maintenance website for wind turbine operations and maintenance. Due to these high costs the Alberta Government appears to be moving towards solar energy by not renewing some of the wind energy contracts.  


Wind turbines are known to kill and injure a substantial number of wildlife, such as large and small birds and bats every year.

Decommissioning of windmills is $200,000.00 for 1 Megawatt of installation.  At 37% efficiency or ($200,000.00/37%)100=$540,000.00 per production Megawatt.

GEM Turbine:

The GEM Turbine is installed at an estimated cost of approximately $1,500.000. to $2,000,000., per Megawatt of power output, site dependant. Low maintenance costs are due to the use of a limited number of 20 to 40 year environmentally friendly bearings with non polluting heavy gauge metal (stainless steel or aluminum) components in the GEM Turbine construction. 

The GEM Turbine will require new bearings every 20 to 25 years as per bearing manufactures claims.  The easily accessed generators will require regular maintenance according to manufacturer specifications as in all generators.  This results in very low operating and maintenance costs as the generators operate above the water and the turbine is easily accessed. The various efficiencies in constructing the GEM Turbine are taken into consideration so the output is 1 megawatt per hour as designed for this competition.

The GEM Turbine has built-in design protection to accommodate aquatic life and is environmentally friendly, with low noise pollution, slow speed, high torque, durable design.  GEM does not anticipate the mortality of any wildlife, while producing substantial amounts of dependable predictable power due to its high efficiency.   The environment is paramount in the GEM Turbine design.    

The capitalization costs on the solar and wind installations per megawatt hour of production will be ($6,000,000/25 years) = $240,000 per year or ($6,000,000/20 years) =$300,000 per year. The GEM Turbine anticipated capitalization costs over 40 to 50 years will be ($2,000,000/40 years) =$50,000 per year or ($2,000,000/50 years) =$40,000 per year per megawatt hour of production with substantially lower operation and maintenance costs and zero to low environmental impact.

After 50 years of use the decommissioning of the GEM Turbine, if nessesary, there will be a net profit per Megawatt of production. (Salvage of stainless steel or aluminum components) 

GEM Services Provided

Project Assessment

  • Project Costing
  • Budget Estimating
  • Project Consulting

Site Assessment

  • Energy Production 
  • River/Channel Velocities Measurements 
  • Site Location

Engineering Designs & Service

  • Site Safety Appraisals
  • Site Mooring/ Anchoring
  • Calculating Hydro flows
  • Calculating Hydro Kinetic Turbine Size
  • Power Output
  • Stress & Dynamic Analysis on Models with Software
  • Fluid Flow Analysis Optimization with Software
  • Environmental Impacts 

Environmental Assessment

  • Wildlife Survival Including Birds & Fish
  • Quite Operation and Low Noise Impact
  • No Water Reservoir Required
  • All Components are Environmentally Friendly


  • Site Installation
  • Transportation
  • Site Assembly

Power Distribution

  • On-shore grid
  • Off-shore grid
  • Micro grid


First Prototype Test Video

We are using steel on steel bearing surfaces in our low technology test facility.  Where the Malaysian study in their high technology flow channel arrived at 89% efficiency confirming the GEM test results. This prototype indicates a need for improved vane technology and a need for increased number of vanes. GEM achieved both of these goals and increased our efficiency by over 50%.




GEM Holdings corporate engineer designed a GEM concept turbine to adequately operate a 5 kilowatt or a 6.25 KVA alternator in the minimum flow of 1.5 m/sec. or 5 feet per second water velocity.  The test site had low flow during testing where the water was 2.5 feet per second as tested in the video.  This flow provided approximately 2100 foot pounds per second of torque from the GEM Turbine.  The gear box consumed 1950 foot pounds per second of torque as per manufacturers specifications. The flow provided approximately 2100 ft.lbs./sec. of force to activate rotation at 2.5 feet of emersion with one exposed vane plus partial exposure of 2 other vanes as anticipated.  At 2.5feet/second the GEM Turbine would produce 10.0 Horsepower not enough to operate the turbine, gearbox and alternator which requires 12 Horsepower at a designed RPM. The test provided the corporate engineer adequate information for a torque to horsepower curve relative to flow velocity and rpm. He combined this test with previous prototype and computer testing and was able to determine the GEM Turbine performance, validating previous testing as well as the Malaysian flow channel results of 89% efficiency. Future testing was not conducted due to anchor failure resulting in turbine damage.  This is a video of the GEM concept turbine test unit and is not a production design as the production model will have no cables, increased efficiency, stability, longevity plus other design features not disclosed.

For any clarification please contact GEM Holdings Ltd.